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Welcome! The Women and Religion Movement is alive and well in the 21st Century. A grassroots project started by lay leaders in the 1970s as an effort to promote examination of religious roots of sexism and patriarchy within the UUA and beyond, UU Women and Religion officially began as a task force following the unanimously-passed WOMEN AND RELIGION RESOLUTION at the 1977 UUA General Assembly. Although the Task Force was eventually sunsetted, the movement still exists in UU communities that hold Women & Religion programs and gatherings for those who identify as women. It exists at the UU General Assembly, where UUW&R brings our Store to the Exhibit Hall and occasionally hosts a gahering. And it lives in the hearts and lives of people who have been touched by the many changes inspired by this movement.

"We do not want a piece of the pie. It is still a patriarchal pie. We want to change the recipe!" -- Rosemary Matson

A paperback edition of Megan Marshall’s biography of Margaret Fuller is here!

Margaret Fuller: A New American Life has been praised as “a magnificent biography,” “spectacularly detailed” and written with a “unique intimacy.”  Emerson’s biographer Robert D. Richardson writes, “this is the book Margaret Fuller would have wanted.”

Marshall tells the story of Fuller’s rise to prominence among the Transcendentalists, her vexed relationship with Ralph Waldo Emerson, the flowering of her feminism in New England and her departure for New York to write for Horace Greeley’s Tribune “at home and abroad,” leading to her love affair with Giovanni Ossoli—all with fresh insight and uncommon pathos. Synthesizing the scholarship of recent decades and drawing on her own research finds—a new record of Fuller’s famous Conversations for women, an Emerson letter describing Thoreau’s findings at the site of the fatal shipwreck, an engraving of Rome belonging to Fuller that survived the wreck—Marshall brings our great American heroine to new and vivid life.  If you loved The Peabody Sisters, Marshall’s first award-winning biography, you will love Margaret Fuller

Order the book!

Margaret Fuller’s 201st Birthday Celebration, 13 West St., Boston 5/25/2011

Introduction of Prof. Phyllis Cole, by Megan Marshall

     Writing is a famously lonely occupation. Researching, the stage that comes be forewriting if you are a biographer or a literary critic of the sort who likes to work from authors’manuscripts, can be even more so. You travel from library to archive in one city after the next, or maybe to the same city over and over again, only to sit in the silent company of others very much like you, but each of them inhabiting entirely different mental spaces as they pore over letters and diaries and manuscript drafts written by other hands in other eras. It can make you terribly aware of the obsessive nature of the quest that has brought you to this work table, with your sharpened pencil or portable computer, and of the frightening arbitrariness of your particular passion. And you haven’t even begun to write your book yet!

When I started to research The Peabody Sisters in 1985, I was lucky to be introduced early on to Phyllis Cole, who was living in Concord at the time. She had already spent countless months–even years–deciphering the manuscript diary of Mary Moody Emerson, the woman who made Ralph Waldo the man everyone loves to quote, that Phyllis had discovered in Harvard’sHoughton Library. (I heard Waldo quoted just yesterday on the radio broadcast from Harvard’s Baccalaureate ceremony–“I am part or particle of God”–Phyllis could recite the rest.)

Phyllis and I had both, in fact, already logged many lonely hours in archives, and so when it turned out that we both had business at the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester–our subjects had mutual friends in the Gage family, whose papers were housed there–we decided to go together.

I don’t remember that either of us really thought we’d find much of anything, but a shared research trip would ease the loneliness of our separate endeavors. In retrospect, it seems almost as if our being there together activated some kind of magic–or, as Margaret Fuller would say,“magnetic element.” It wasn’t long before I realized that the sheaf of papers I was reading, that had been described in the catalog cards only hazily as possibly a fragment of a journal by Elizabeth Peabody, was actually Peabody’s detailed record of Margaret Fuller’s first series of Conversations. I couldn’t believe it. We couldn’t believe it. For over a century people had been wondering, what did Margaret Fuller actually say in her Conversations with women–what did the women say? Here it was, all written down.

What you won’t believe, is that Phyllis and I, fully realizing what a remarkable treasure this document was, looked at each other and said–“We don’t have time for Margaret Fuller now.” We were committed to our separate lonely endeavors, and we went back to them, each of us eventually producing books, worthy ones, I hope. Phyllis knew Nancy Craig Simmons, another scholar of the period, and put her on to the manuscript, which Nancy edited and published inStudies in the American Renaissance, 1994, so that other scholars and biographers could use the information, and they have.

I want to read a brief passage from this document, from the opening Conversation in the fall of 1839–just as a reminder of Fuller’s generous-hearted aims. She really didn’t, or at least said she didn’t, want to be the center of attention: “Miss Fuller guarded against the idea that she was to teach any thing. She merely meant to be the nucleus of conversation– . . . & she proposed to be one to give her own best thoughts on any subject that was named, as a means of calling out the thoughts of others. [These subjects turned out to be large issues, such as the nature of inspiration, of beauty, of genius, of woman’s place insociety.] She thought it would be a good plan to take up subjects on which we knew words–& had impressions, & vague irregular notions, & compel ourselves to define those words, to turn these impressions into thoughts, & to systematise these thoughts– We should probably have to go through some mortification in finding how much less we knew than we thought–& on the other hand we should probably find ourselves encouraged by seeing how much & how rapidly we should gain by making a simple & clear effort for expression.” How much and how rapidly we should gain by making a simple & clear effort for expression. It’s a phrase that every writer should take to heart, and certainly I do.

Well, the wonder of it now is– the magic that brought Phyllis and me to Worcester twenty-five years ago seems to have been slowly working on both of us, bringing us together again, if not in the same part of the country, then in the same mental space–Margaret Fuller’s space. And of course here we are tonight in a space that Margaret Fuller herself once occupied.

Maybe not so much has changed. In the 1840s, there was a stable across the street–now we have Suffolk University dorms! But here we are in the very space where many of Fuller’s inspiring Conversations took place, to celebrate her 201st, and to celebrate the completion of a full year of bicentennial events, by listening to some of Prof. Phyllis Cole’s thoughts on the birthday woman.

After completing her monumental biography Mary Moody Emerson and the Origins of Transcendentalism, which was a finalist for the James Russell Lowell Prize of the Modern Language Association, Prof. Cole of Penn State Brandywine, where she teaches in the English, Women’s Studies, and American Studies departments, has been working on Margaret Fuller for about twelve years–or maybe longer if you count back to that AAS discovery. She is currently the Vice President of the Margaret Fuller Society, and has been awarded a fellowship for the coming academic year at the University of Connecticut Humanities Institute to work on a book with the brilliant title– The Afterlife of Margaret Fuller.

What Margaret Fuller Did For Feminism

Fuller’s 201st Birthday Celebration

Peabody Book Room, 13 West Street, May 25, 2011
Phyllis Cole

      The West Street shop where we meet made conversation possible in two ways:  literal talk took place here, most famously among the women of Fuller’s circle, but in addition people discovered each other and their mutual possibilities across time and space through the voices-in-print of books.  It seems to me the very walls echo with both kinds of voices.  Certainly Margaret Fuller gave herself deeply to the two kinds of conversation, and the feminist vision of Woman in the Nineteenth Century grew directly from them.  Imagine her in 1843 going from the conversations she led here on West Street back home to Ellery Street in Cambridge, where she was reading everything from current news to ancient world classics in search of insight about women, their wrongs and their potential. All this as she composed “The Great Lawsuit” for the Dial, then a year later began enlarging it into a book, Woman in the Nineteenth Century, even before leaving Boston for New York. 
      Moving in that spirit, I’d like to enlarge the conversation by asking how she engaged other feminists, both before her and after.  Most of all, how does her work respond to that of her two greatest feminist predecessors, Mary Wollstonecraft and the sisters Sarah and Angelina Grimke, and in turn what did her work mean to the activists who organized a women’s rights movement in America just as she died prematurely in 1850?  I’ve been asking such questions for about a dozen years and this coming year hope to bring the puzzle pieces together in a book.  I’ve discovered that, amidst a great outpouring of well deserved attention to Fuller as a transcendentalist and mystic, there has not been much written about her as a contributor to the feminist tradition as a whole.  Fullerites don’t pay much attention to Wollstonecraft, the Grimkes, or Elizabeth Cady Stanton, while the history and political science types who study these other women rarely give more than a passing nod to Fuller’s intellectually complex and rhapsodic writing.  One group thinks about the civil rights of women, the other, women’s soul.  As Charles Capper, Fuller’s biographer, puts it, she is “strangely missing from feminist histories,” as if her book “floated somewhere above the movement’s turbulent waters.”   So let’s celebrate Fuller tonight by also celebrating Wollstonecraft—that British radical of the 1790s who not only wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman but then joined the French Revolution and, scandalously, had a child out of wedlock—and Sarah and Angelina Grimké —those daughters of South Carolina slavery who reinvented themselves in turn as Quakers, public lecturers against slavery, and feminist advocates.  In a word, Fuller both learned enormously from these older sisters and moved beyond them in ways that would prove crucial to the future of feminism. 
      All three writers really did speak of women’s civil rights.  After all, Fuller’s feminist essay was first entitled “The Great Lawsuit”; and in both versions of this manifesto she declares that a human “inheritance” has been lost, now urging its recovery in ever higher courts.  Indeed, she invokes the divine law that will undo injustice on earth.  She herself is the “lawgiver by theocratic commission” who argues the case.  Of course all this is an elaborate metaphor—a wonderfully ironic one, since according to nineteenth century Common Law of women’s “coverture,” the very essence of a woman’s civil nonexistence was her incapacity to “sue or be sued.”  That’s why Fuller needs make her lawsuit a “great” one, directed to higher courts of the universe than are ruled by Common Law.   The mythic and philosophical Fuller offers solutions to the active deprivations of women in the most concrete, this-worldly senses.  And this aspect and tone of voice brings her quite directly in touch with Wollstonecraft, with her “vindication” of women, and Angelina Grimké with her “appeal” for them. All three are raising public voices where the public has not granted voice, urging their persuasive cases against the business as usual of female dependence and dispossession.  Of the three, I’d add, Fuller’s metaphor of presenting a “lawsuit” is actually the most confrontational.
      What then does she have in common with Wollstonecraft?  First of all, because of her scandalous life, Wollstonecraft was not an easy ally.  Fuller had grown up knowing of her; all she needed to do in childhood was read her father’s letters home from Washington (as she almost surely did) to get the double message.  Within the same week Timothy Fuller described Vindication as a “sensible and just” guide to female education—indeed, it was a major influence on his extraordinary ongoing program for Margaret—and a book that, on account of its author’s libertine life, “no woman dares to read.”  Both in Timothy’s day and still in Margaret’s, Wollstonecraft was widely discredited; and as a result, in her book about law, Fuller calls her an “outlaw,” a woman “whose existence better proved the need of some new interpretation of woman’s rights, than any thing she wrote.”  Any woman wishing to reform others, Fuller goes on, must be “unstained by passionate error.”  In fact she brings up Wollstonecraft not in the midst of her own basic arguments for women, but in describing the marriage of “intellectual companionship” that the loyal husband William Godwin proved by defending his wife after her death.  According to Fuller, it was because William could value Mary’s “inner life” that their marriage seemed “the sign of a new era.”  In later years Fuller would act out life choices uncannily like Wollstonecraft’s, almost act out her script, giving birth to her own child amidst revolution.  But she identifies with no such libertinism in 1844.
      What she does instead is to draw silently on a significant portion of the language and ideas of this first, truly founding vindication of woman’s rights.  For example, Wollstonecraft declares that women are “placed on this earth to unfold their faculties,” not to fulfill the “prevailing opinion, that woman was created for man.”  Fuller in turn protests that only a rare man “can rise above the belief that woman was made for man….What woman needs is…to unfold such powers as were given her when we left our common home.”  Both feminist writers primarily, forcefully urge women’s intellectual development, not just through formal education but through a remaking of the mind itself.  This kind of echoing is not plagiarism, but implicit acknowledgement of a mentor. 
Beyond similarity of language lie deep resonances of principle.  Wollstonecraft is directly grounded in liberty, experiencing the French Revolution as her immediate scene of commitment; half a century later, Fuller finds in the French Revolution her first evidence that “as the principle of liberty is better understood…a broader protest is made in behalf of Woman.”  Wollstonecraft and Fuller are both utopian thinkers, looking to future transformation of human nature itself.  The British feminist affirms that “all will be right,” if it is not so as yet.  And in doing so she engages passion and imagination as well as Age-of-Enlightenment reason.  “A wild wish has just flown from my heart to my head,” she writes, “…I do earnestly wish to see the distinction of sex confounded in society.”  Not only the content of that “wild wish” but its very flight from heart to head is Fuller’s debt to her.  And while Fuller augments the older “wish” into a trans-historical, religious quest, her predecessor also affirms the divine intent behind her own vision:  “These may be termed Utopian dreams,” writes Wollstonecraft.  “—Thanks to that Being who impressed them upon my soul.”
 Such a sense of Wollstonecraft sets in relief both Fuller’s grounding as a feminist in the age of revolutions and her leap beyond that earlier utopian wish into fully Romantic constructions of the soul and universe.  Wollstonecraft knew something about Romanticism too, finding her chief adversary in Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who offered only male representatives of the human race to embody a vibrant conception of natural, independent virtue.  “This was Rousseau’s opinion respecting men,” she declares; “I extend it to women.”  Fuller may have learned from that bold act of appropriation how to deal with male mentors of her own, like Emerson and Goethe.  In Wollstonecraft’s world, all the virtues were masculine, so, she said, let women be more masculine.  Fuller finds a much greater prophetic power in the female, in “Muse,” even while also allowing women to become masculine as Minerva.  But then she also redefines the sexes as a “great radical dualism,” continuous and open to negotiation for every man and every woman.  It was her Romantic faith in the openness of soul to the divine universe that, fifty years after Wollstonecraft, allowed for such possibility.
      In those fifty years, much closer to Fuller than to Wollstonecraft, Sarah and Angelina Grimké also raised their voices and took up their pens in defense of women.  They were not conscious revolutionaries, let alone sexual rebels.  But from the grounding of Quaker faith, they dared an equally radical act in their public, vocal opposition to slavery.  Their 1837 season of lectures in Massachusetts had seismic repercussions because in response the Congregational Clergy issued a “Pastoral Letter” condemning public speech by women as a violation of their Biblically defined sphere.  And the women’s responses drew battle lines for an immediate and long-term struggle over women’s right to public voice.  Margaret Fuller crossed paths with them in Concord in 1837, at a time when her own primary attention was still on Ralph Waldo Emerson’s “American Scholar” address, but his wife Lidian (her host) was simultaneously inviting the Grimkés for tea and joining townswomen in planning an antislavery society.  Fuller recorded no impression of them then, but her writing of the 1840s had most assuredly caught up on the significance of these recent protests.
      Like Mary Wollstonecraft, Angelina Grimké appears in Fuller’s Woman in the Nineteenth Century as a relatively brief allusion, occurring at a moment in mid-stream that suggests rather than encompasses her larger debt to the two sisters.  Cataloguing current motions that “overflow upon our land,” Fuller tells of “women who speak in public…for conscience sake,” and in particular Angelina.  Indeed, this brief appearance is part of a theme developed throughout the essay of Quaker women pleading their holy cause of abolition, and at the end she draws in her readers, too, as “Exaltadas”—exalted ones—who must oppose the annexation of Texas with the same boldness as the abolitionist women, rather than risking offense to God.  Fuller is amplifying the voice of Angelina Grimké to Romantic registers of power for herself and readers alike.
      However, just as with Wollstonecraft, there’s more Grimké in Fuller’s argument than she acknowledges explicitly. In particular, she never mentions Sarah Grimké, the writer who decisively turned moral agency to feminist pleading and provided her with an invaluable ideological source.  Fuller’s “lawsuit” depends significantly upon Sarah’s arguments in Letters on the Equality of the Sexes, written amidst that forbidden speaking tour of 1837.  Never as confident a public speaker as her younger sister, Sarah was the legal analyst of the pair, laying bare the Common Law of married women’s “coverture” in a cogent form that would echo through subsequent American and British feminist arguments.  She quotes directly from the highest British authority, Sir William Blackstone, and dissects his logic to show women’s suspension of legal existence as a form of abuse and degradation at one with slavery.  Legal disempowerment, she argues, destroys woman’s “responsibility…as a moral being.”  She does not evoke tyranny or revolution and never even shows awareness of Wollstonecraft’s previous manifesto.  But this second major beginning of feminist argument hinges equally upon abuse of power and is just as enraged.  Both content and tone are crucial to Fuller, who directly mimics parts of Grimké’s argument as she makes her primary case for woman’s need.  “It may be an Anti-Slavery party that pleads for woman,” she asserts, “if we consider merely that she does not hold property on equal terms with men.”  Like Grimké, Fuller offers a litany from first person witness of husbands robbing their wives’ earnings.  Even though she promises rhetorically not to speak directly of them, she cannot resist speaking, “for the subject makes me feel too much.” 
      But, Fuller also expresses the “large” ideals of personhood within marriage that will give new hope and destiny to women.  “If principles could be established,” she concludes, “particulars would adjust themselves.”  That’s where she goes beyond Grimké.  Fuller is a Romantic in both “feeling too much” and moving from mere feeling to universal principles that promise redress.  Her transcendental idealism is a means of at once releasing the inner self from emotional turmoil and addressing problems at the root:   trust in self and universal justice amounts to a non-conflictual strategy for change.  Her argument and Grimké’s might be considered complementary, sequential steps in such a strategy.  Grimké clears space with a negative critique, responding in explicit, lawyer-like detail to the edicts of male authority:  first the Massachusetts Pastoral Letter and its attempted prohibition of women’s speech, then Blackstone and his legal definition of women’s moral non-being.   While alluding knowledgeably to both controversies, Fuller rehearses neither one, but instead steps beyond them by calling forth women’s actual voices, arising from podium and printed page, and claiming their harmony with natural law.  She evokes such a law but does not just write like a lawyer, adding to her Grimké-esque argument satiric and celebratory portraits of her own making.  Her early “speech” for women’s rights is preceded by dialogue with a smugly possessive husband and followed by conversation with Miranda, the self-reliant woman who would have all women share her riches of knowledge. 
      In the religious bedrock that makes such self-reliance possible, Woman in the Nineteenth Century also advances a conversation begun by Letters on the Equality of the Sexes.  Grimké’s tract is intensely scriptural, a feminist commentary on America’s Second Great Awakening orthodoxy.  “I am in search of truth,” Grimké avows on her first page, and “shall depend solely on the Bible to designate the sphere of woman.”  But her reading of Genesis and Paul is highly revisionary, critiquing the “perverted interpretation” that underwrites women’s subjection with apparently sacred authority.  She affirms the equality of female and male in God’s creation and their equal guilt in the fall, reading as mere prediction rather than command God’s word to Eve that she will be subject to Adam.  She responds to Paul’s command for women to “keep silence in the church” by reciting women’s “gift of prophecy” throughout the Bible and Paul’s positive guidelines for its practice.  Such a reading of scripture frames her withering response to the Pastoral Letter, where she bypasses clerical authority in favor of Jesus’ injunction to “Come unto me and learn of me,” then recalls the direct word of God, “Cry aloud, spare not, lift up thy voice like a trumpet, and show my people their transgression.”  Given such scriptural words, no woman of faith would dare be anything but a public reformer. 
      Immersed in New Critical and Romantic approaches to the Bible as poetry rather than revelation, Fuller does not join Grimké in patient argument. But she is more like Grimké than Wollstonecraft in engaging with the Bible’s patterns of prophecy and millennial possibility.  Acknowledging the fall only as a projection of the “severe race” that created the Bible, she finds that “even they greeted, with solemn rapture, all great and holy women as heroines, prophetesses, judges in Israel.” Instead of a fall, there has been a loss of the divine “inheritance”; still, however, a “future Eden” awaits its recovery.   In that recovery she combines elements of the Judaeo-Christian tradition with “other nations” by affirming Sita, Isis and the Greek pantheon alongside Eve and Mary.  Fuller lays out the content as well as capacity of woman’s holy voice across world cultures and eras. But, as with Grimké, the language of Jesus provides a touchstone for her hope:  “This is the law and the prophets.  Knock and it shall be opened, seek and ye shall find.”
      In Fuller’s hands prophecy turns primarily from Grimké’s indictment of iniquity to such seeking and finding.  She writes with a utopian confidence outside her predecessor’s range; neither Quaker conviction nor antislavery politics gives Grimké such possibility.  The Letters end without vision of God’s kingdom, but only with a call for woman to labor against sin in a fallen world.  Each letter closes identically, “Thine in the bonds of womanhood”; her arguments do not loosen those bonds.  In this sense Fuller’s greater affinity lies with Wollstonecraft, who sees the world opening to revolutionary change.  However, Fuller’s confidence in transformative possibility far surpasses both.  Souls can discover their own power and their creator’s law, allowing the prescriptions of church and state simply to be overwhelmed by the higher truth of equality.  As she says, “There is but one law for souls,” enfranchising both woman and African slave, and “this law cannot fail of universal recognition.” 
      Possibly Fuller’s greatest gift to nascent feminism is this rhetoric of expectancy as a means to its own fulfillment.  Such optimism both arises from self-reliance and directs the self outward to social change.  Both of her predecessors ask for the support of powerful men in changing the status quo.  “Our brethren are called upon,” Grimké writes, “by every sentiment of honor, religion, and justice, to repeal these unjust and unequal laws.”  Despite her radicalism, Wollstonecraft concludes similarly: “Let woman share the rights and she will emulate the virtues of man….Be just then, O ye men of understanding!”  Fuller asks men for attention but does not depend on their power.  When she uses the verb “let” it is to proclaim rather than ask permission:  “But if you ask me what offices [women] might fill; I reply—any.  I do not care what case you put; let them be sea-captains, if you will.”  She is not asking permission; her sentence is syntactically parallel to “let there be light.”  Likewise she lays down a queenly mandate of hopefulness:  “We would have every arbitrary barrier thrown down.  We would have every path laid open to woman as freely as to man.”  Giving voice to such possibilities is her unique way of pleading the cause.  
      In the years of conventions that produced an politically active transatlantic feminist movement, between Stanton’s 1848 gathering at Seneca Falls and the Civil War’s opening, all of our early writers had either died or (with the Grimkés) gone into retirement.  But all were influential.  To put it briefly, Stanton’s Declaration of Sentiments learned its rhetoric of liberty and tyranny from Wollstonecraft, its argument about the ways the law obliterated women from Sarah Grimké, and her affirmation of divinely originated self-respect from Fuller.  We can be certain of the Fuller influence because, as I discovered some years ago, Stanton’s first speech for the movement that year took whole sentences from Woman in the Nineteenth Century:   sentences of inspiration calling upon women to “live first for God’s sake,” urging that they “persist to ask and it will come.”  Through her long career, Stanton did not completely embrace Fuller.  She rarely mentioned her, and in one overtly hostile moment quoted Theodore Parker remembering how Fuller would “twaddle forth” about art and the soul to “gawky girls and long-haired young men.”  Quite a picture of Fuller’s conversations!   But in writing the History of Woman Suffrage, she did list Fuller as well as Wollstonecraft and the Grimkés among those to whom she dedicated the work, and she called Fuller a “precursor” especially in her “vindication of woman’s right to think.”  That phrase made Fuller a clear partner of that other precursor and vindicator, Wollstonecraft.  Finally, near the end of Stanton’s life, when the once warring Boston and New York factions of the women’s rights movement had rejoined, they gathered in 1901 to dedicate a memorial to Fuller’s life at the scene of her death on Fire Island, and Stanton wrote to the Boston Woman’s Journal honoring Fuller as “one I knew and admired.”  “I had the privilege,” she now acknowledged for the first time, “of enjoying many of her famous conversations.”  So picture young Elizabeth Cady Stanton, among others, in this room about 1843. 
      But it was the Bostonians, disciples of Fuller’s transcendentalism and feminism, who really kept her memory alive throughout the nineteenth century.  I have time for only a few snapshots.  In May, 1870 the recently formed New England Woman’s Club began the custom of celebrating Fuller’s birthday in their elegant new quarters, shared with the Woman’s Journal and American Woman Suffrage Association, just off of Beacon Street near the State House.  Amidst banks of flowers and memorial recollections were placards with words of Fuller’s lettered upon them:  “We must have units before we can have union.”  “We would have every path open to woman as freely as to man.”  For this group, at least some of them spiritualists, it was almost as though she had not died at all.  Maybe the most uncanny report is from William Henry Channing in the early 1870s, that a day of thinking of his old friend made him feel possessed by her spirit.  “I speak to you,” he told a Boston audience, “not as a man, but as a woman.  I am speaking as Margaret Fuller would have spoken.”  In their politics, religious activism, and writing, Fuller’s disciples—including the young women who attended her conversations—worked on her strength.   Caroline Healey Dall in fact wrote a history of feminism with Fuller at the center. Thinking specifically of her relation to Wollstonecraft, Dall wrote, “[Margaret Fuller] caught the rumor which floated in subtle discord all around her.”  That lovely sentence perfectly catches her way of listening to the conversation and then venturing her own word. 
      There is much more to tell of this “afterlife” of Margaret Fuller, but tonight is not the time.  Let me leap ahead to a conclusion in the making: that Fuller’s legacy has indeed continued to live on through both direct and subterranean channels into the Second and Third Waves of feminism in our own lifetimes.  No other founder of American or transatlantic feminism was as early and strong as she in affirming identity and consciousness—“consciousness raising,” we might call it—as the foundation of any movement for women’s wider lives.  No other feminist made the claim, integral to an affirmation of the human race, that gender was not fixed but fluid, that women could be like men and men like women.  No other feminist saw the possibilities of utopian transformation so clearly, and based it on such faith in the fluid potential of human and divine nature.  In all these ways she drew upon her predecessors Wollstonecraft and Grimké but went beyond them, so making a great difference both to her immediate feminist heirs and to us today.

Boston Athenaeum Presents:
“Margaret Fuller and her Boston Conversations”

 Wednesday, December 8, 2010, 12:00 P.M.

Boston, MA, November 9, 2010 – Megan Marshall will present “‘My Own Path Leads a Different Course’: Margaret Fuller and her Boston Conversations,’”  on Wednesday, December 8th at noon at the Boston Athenaeum, 10 ½ Beacon Street in Boston.  Marshall is Assistant Professor at Emerson College, where she teaches narrative nonfiction writing and the art of archival research in the MFA program.  She is the author of The Peabody Sisters: Three Women Who Ignited American Romanticism, winner of the Francis Parkman Prize, the Mark Lynton History Prize, the Massachusetts Book Award, and finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in biography.  She is currently at work on a biographical study of Margaret Fuller, The Passion of Margaret Fuller: A Biographical Romance to be published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 

“Margaret Fuller was America's first female public intellectual, the Susan Sontag or Mary McCarthy of her time,” says Marshall.  “But Fuller was more than a cultural critic and opinion maker; she took an active part in what she called the 'era of experiment.'  Her Conversations for women in Boston, which took place just a few blocks from the Athenaeum, were the beginning of a crucial decade that culminated with Fuller's involvement in the Roman revolution of 1848-9.  What were the Conversations like?  How did Fuller arrive at this point of radical commitment?  Our conversation on December 8 will, like Fuller's, ask the 'great questions.'” 

 The program is supported by grants from Mass Humanities, the Fund for Unitarian Universalism, and individual donations.  The Conversation is co-sponsored by the Margaret Fuller Bicentennial Committee and the Boston Athenaeum and is part of a year-long series of events celebrating Fuller’s life and work.  It is free and open to the public. Donations will be gratefully accepted. 





Sunday November 7 at 3:00 P.M. at Arlington Street Church

Boston, MA, October 25, 2010 – The Margaret Fuller Bicentennial is pleased to continue its Conversations Series with a moderated panel discussion featuring two prominent scholars. The event will take place on Sunday November 7 at 3:00 P.M. at Arlington Street Church, 351 Boylston Street, Boston. The program is modeled after the “Conversations” that Margaret Fuller offered for women (and later men) in Boston from 1839 to 1844. The Conversation Series intends to provoke thought on how the issues that concerned this trailblazing woman might relate to contemporary life. 

John Matteson, Professor of English at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY, and Pulitzer Prize winning author of Eden’s Outcasts: The Story of Louisa May Alcott and Her Father,  will present “‘Clouded by Secret Sin’: Margaret Fuller and the Darker Side of Woman in the Nineteenth Century.” This revolutionary treatise is widely considered the first book on women’s rights by an American.

“Most people who think about Fuller tend to regard her principally as an extraordinary intellect,” Matteson observes. “However, she was also the most passionate of the great transcendentalists, and her fascination with forbidden sexuality underlies much of the thinking that went into Woman in the Nineteenth Century. Her arrival in New York coincided with her developing a powerful interest in women of ill fame. Unlike most reformers, who saw prostitutes only as victims to be rescued, Fuller wanted to understand and sympathize with them.”

Daniel McKanan, Ralph Waldo Emerson Unitarian Universalist Association Senior Lecturer in Divinity at Harvard Divinity School will present “Margaret Fuller and 1848: Forging a United Radical Tradition.” McKanan is the author of the forthcoming 200 year history of religion and radical politics in the United States, which includes Margaret Fuller’s friendship with Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini.

“2010 marks the bicentennial of many leading figures in the Transcendentalist movement,” says McKanan, “but Margaret Fuller is special-both because she was left out of the celebrations one hundred years ago and because she linked spirituality to radical activism in a way that can still be a model for us today.”

The panel will be moderated by Rev. Kim Crawford Harvie. There will be time for conversation and questions following the presentation. The traveling display, “Why Margaret Fuller Matters,” will be on location for viewing. Refreshments will be served.  The program is free and open to the public.

The program is supported by grants from Mass Humanities, the Fund for Unitarian Universalism, and individual donations. It is co-sponsored by the Margaret Fuller Bicentennial Committee and Arlington Street Church.



First Parish Church in Concord Presents
“Margaret Fuller in Italy”
Thursday October 21, 2010 at 7:30 P.M.- 9:00 P.M.

Press Contact: Carla A. Gomez
(978) 502-3113        

Concord, M.A. October 4, 2010 - Reverend Jenny Rankin will present a lecture and slideshow, “Margaret Fuller in Italy” at the First Parish Church in Concord, Unitarian Universalist, 20 Lexington Road, Concord, Ma., on October 21 at 7:30 P.M.  Reverend Rankin traveled to Rome to research Fuller’s experiences in Italy and retrace her steps.  She has created this presentation based on her research.

From the time she was a young girl growing up in Cambridge, Margaret Fuller had dreamed of going to Europe, and especially to Italy.  She had studied the Italian language, knew its literature and poetry, and followed its politics.  Her dream was deferred, however, due to the sudden death of her father.  Margaret took over as “head of household” working to earn money to support her family.  Finally, in August 1846, her dream came true as she sailed from Boston to Liverpool.   She toured England and France before arriving in Italy in the spring of 1847.

“I was lucky to be able to travel to Rome last March during a sabbatical,” says Rev. Rankin.  “I worked at the library of American Academy of Rome which is located across the street from the building that was Garibaldi’s headquarters during the Roman Republic.  Consequently, I was “right on location” to research the Roman Republic in which Margaret was so involved in the spring of 1849.”

Rev. Rankin’s lecture will trace the story of Margaret’s time in Italy, from her arrival as a “tourist” to her settling down in Rome, working as a journalist, falling in love, giving birth and participating in the Revolution which swept Rome in the spring of 1849.  Slides will show 19th century images of Italy and Rome as well as contemporary photos of sites in Rome where Margaret lived and worked.

Rev. Jenny Rankin is a Unitarian Universalist minister at First Parish in Concord, Unitarian Universalist.  She has taught classes on Transcendentalism and Margaret Fuller.
The lecture is free and open to the public.  Donations will be gratefully accepted to support the Margaret Fuller Bicentennial and ongoing classes and discussion groups of the Wright Tavern Center for Spiritual Renewal.  Refreshments will be served following the program.

This event is part of the Bicentennial’s Conversations Series, supported by a grant from Mass Humanities and modeled after the “Conversations” which Margaret Fuller offered for women (and later men) in Boston in the late 1830s and 1840s.  The event is co-sponsored by the Margaret Fuller Bicentennial Committee, First Parish in Concord, and the Transcendentalist Council of First Parish, and is part of a year-long series of events celebrating Margaret Fuller’s life and work.  For a complete list of the other programs, please visit: www.margaretfuller.org.



Over the course of the Bicentennial celebration the Committee, in partnership with Mass Humanities, has hosted five Conversations thus far.  Hopefully many of you were able to attend a few of these interesting and entertaining events.  If you were not able to enjoy them in person, we hope you have enjoyed the descriptions and updates available on our web site, the Mass Humanities web site, or via newsletters, Facebook, and press releases.

Thanks to a recent grant from the Fund For Unitarian Universalism for documentation of the Bicentennial, we are very pleased to announce that we now have 19 video clips available for viewing on www.youtube.com.  The clips were shot at four of the Converstions including: seven clips of  "Why Margaret Fuller Matters," which took place at the Margaret Fuller Neighborhood House (her birthplace) on May 15, two clips from  "Margaret Fuller in Groton: Shaping a Life, Framing a Mind," which took place on Sunday May 16 at First Parish in Groton, five clips from the memorial service at Mt. Auburn cemetery on July 18, and finally, five clips from the Conversation between Margaret Fuller and Edgar Allen Poe at the Old Manse in Concord on August 19.   Relive your favorite parts of the program, or enjoy ones you missed, by visiting the official Bicentennial Committee channel on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/FullerBicentenniel

The Committee would like to thank cameraman William Reilly for his work filming the event at MFNH, camerawoman Donna Clifford for her work at First Parish in Groton, and camerawoman, and videographer, Josephine Sedgwick for her work filming at Mt. Auburn and the Old Manse, as well as for editing and posting the footage to the Committee's YouTube channel.  Footage taken of our upcoming events will be available on this channel in the future, so consider subscribing.

Good news; there is still more to come!

Save the dates for these upcoming Conversations:

Thursday, October 21, 2010, 7:30 PM, at First Parish In Concord, Unitarian Universalist.  “Margaret Fuller in Italy,” lecture and slides by the Rev. Jenny Rankin, who traveled to Rome to research Margaret Fuller's experiences in Italy and retrace her steps. Co-sponsored by First Parish and the Transcendentalist Council of First Parish. 

Sunday, November 7, 2010, 3 PM, at Arlington Street Church, Boston. “Margaret Fuller’s Network: How Politics, Literature, and Art Crossed in the World Around Her,” with John Matteson, Pulitzer Prize winning author of Eden's Outcasts: The Story of Louisa May Alcott and Her Father and Associate Professor of English at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY; Daniel McKanan, Ralph Waldo Emerson Unitarian Universalist Association Senior Lecturer in Divinity at Harvard Divinity School, and author of forthcoming book featuring Margaret Fuller’s friendship with Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini; with an introduction by the Rev. Dr. Dorothy Emerson, coordinator of the Margaret Fuller Bicentennial, and author/editor of Standing Before Us: Unitarian Universalist Women and Social Reform 1776-1936; and moderated by the Rev. Kim Crawford Harvie. Co-sponsored by Arlington Street Church.

Wednesday, December 8, 2010, 12 noon at the Boston Athenaeum. Program has changed. Check back for details. 

 We plan to film highlights of these events as well, so be sure to visit our YouTube channel if you are unable to attend. 





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